Belajar 16 Tenses Lengkap



Untuk dapat menguasai bahasa Inggris baik secara lisan maupun tulisan, hal utama yang kamu perlukan adalah memahami tenses. Tenses bisa dikatakan sebagai dasar dari kemampuan menyusun kalimat berbahasa Inggris. Terdapat 16 tenses dalam Bahasa Inggris yang penggunaannya menggunakan pedoman waktu. Artinya, kamu harus mengetahui waktu dari suatu peristiwa yang sedang kamu bicarakan, termasuk perbandingan waktu antar klausanya. Karena hal itu berpengaruh pada tenses apa yang harus kamu gunakan.

Berikut ini adalah rangkuman pokok dari ke-16 tenses yang ada. Untuk membantumu menguasai tenses ini, jangan lupa baca juga ‘Empat Kunci Sederhana Memahami16 Tenses’, yang memuat trik khusus untuk membantumu memahami tenses dengan cara sesederhana mungkin.

1. Simple Present Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang mengandung habitual action (kegiatan keseharian); Berlangsung saat ini/ pada masa-masa sekarang. Fungsi waktu saat ini pada simple present tense lebih luas dibanding continuous tense yang lebih menekankan pada waktu ‘sekarang’.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + Verb 1 (untuk subjek he/she/it + s/es) + O
= He plays football (Dia bermain bola)
= I play football (Saya bermain bola)
Nominal = S + is/ am/ are (to be) + adjective/ adverb
= He is a football player (Dia adalah pemain bola)
= I am a football player (Saya adalah pemain bola)
= They are football players (Mereka adalah pemain bola)
Negative = S + Do /does + not + Verb 1
= I do not play football (Saya tidak bermain bola)
Negative = S + is/ am/ are + not + Adj/ Adv
= She is not a football player (Dia bukan pemain bola)
Interrogative = Do/ does + S + Verb 1?
= Does he play football? (Apakah dia bermain bola?)
Interrogative = is/ am/ are + S + Adj/ Adv?
= Is he a football player? (Apakah dia seorang pemain bola?)
            CIRI UTAMA = VERB 1

2. Present Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang terjadi sekarang dan masih atau sedang berlanjut kemudian. Fungsi waktu pada continuous tense lebih mengarah untuk menekankan bahwa suatu kejadian sedang berlansung, sehingga fungsinya lebih sempit bila dibanding present tense.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + to be (is/am/are) + Verb ing + O
= He is playing football now (Dia sedang bermain bola sekarang)
Nominal = S + to be (is/ am/ are) + being + adjective/ adverb
= He is being angry (Dia sedang marah)
Negative = S + Do /does + not + Verb ing
= I am not playing football (Saya tidak sedang bermain bola)
Negative = S + is/ am/ are + not + being + Adj/ Adv
= She is not being angry (Dia tidak sedang marah)
Interrogative = is/ am/ are + S + Verb ing?
= Is he playing football now? (Apakah dia sedang bermain bola sekarang?)
Interrogative = is/ am/ are + S + being + Adj/ Adv?
= Is he being angry? (Apakah dia sedang marah?)
CIRI UTAMA = TO BE + VERB ING

3. Present Perfect Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang sudah terjadi atau baru saja berakhir pada masa sekarang.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + has / have + Verb 3 + O
= He has played football (Dia sudah bermain bola)
Nominal = S + has / have + been + adjective/ adverb
= He has been full (Dia sudah kenyang)
Negative = S + has / have + not + Verb 3 + O
= He has not played football (Dia belum bermain bola)
Negative = S + has / have + not + been + Adj/ Adv
= She has not been full (Dia belum kenyang)
Interrogative = has / have + S + Verb 3 + O
= Has he not played football? (Apakah dia belum bermain bola?)
Interrogative = has / have + S + been + Adj/ Adv
= Has she been full (Apakah dia sudah kenyang?)
CIRI UTAMA = HAS/ HAVE+ VERB 3

4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang terjadi di masa lalu yang masih berlanjut hingga sekarang.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + has / have + been + Verb ing + O
= He has been working here for 2 hours (Dia sudah bekerja disini selama 2 jam)
Nominal = S + has / have + been + Being + adjective/ adverb
= He has been being here for 2 hours (Dia sudah berada disini selama 2 jam)
Negative = S + has / have + been + not + Verb ing + O
= He has been not working here for 2 months (Dia sudah tidak bekerja disini selama 2 bulan)
Negative = S + has / have + been + not + Being + adjective/ adverb
= He has been not being here for 2 months (Dia sudah tidak berada disini selama 2 bulan)
Interrogative = has / have + S + been + Verb ing + O
= Has he been working here for 2 hours (Apakah dia sudah bekerja disini selama 2 jam?)
Interrogative = has / have + S + been + Being + adjective/ adverb
= Has he been being here for 2 hours (Dia sudah berada disini selama 2 jam?)
CIRI UTAMA = HAS/ HAVE + BEEN + VERB ING

5. Simple Past Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang terjadi di masa lampau.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + Verb 2 + O
= He played football yesterday (Dia bermain sepakbola kemarin)
Nominal = S + was/ were + adjective/ adverb
= He was here yesterday (Dia ada disini kemarin)
Negative = S + did + not + Verb 1 + O
= He did not played football yesterday (Dia tidak bermain bola kemarin)
Negative = S + was/ were + not + Adj/ Adv
= He was not here yesterday (Dia tidak ada disini kemarin)
Interrogative = Did + S + Verb 1 + O
= Did he played football yesterday (Apakah dia bermain bola kemarin?)
Interrogative = Was/ Were + S + Adj/ Adv
= Was he here yesterday (Apakah dia ada disini kemarin?)
CIRI UTAMA = VERB 2 (bentuk 2 dari to be (is/am/are) adalah WAS/ WERE; bentuk dua dari do/ does adalah DID)

6. Past Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya sedang berlangsung di masa lampau.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + was / were + verb ing
= He was playing football yesterday (Dia sedang bermain sepakbola kemarin)
Nominal = S + was/ were + being + adjective/ adverb
= He was being here yesterday (Dia sedang ada disini kemarin)
Negative = S + was/ were + not + Verb ing + O
= He was not playing football yesterday (Dia tidak sedang bermain bola kemarin)
Negative = S + was/ were + not + being + Adj/ Adv
= He was not being here yesterday (Dia tidak sedang ada disini kemarin)
Interrogative = Was/ were + S + Verb ing + O
= Was he playing football yesterday (Apakah dia bermain bola kemarin?)
Interrogative = Was/ Were + S + being + Adj/ Adv
= Was he being here yesterday (Apakah dia sedang ada disini kemarin?)
CIRI UTAMA = Was/ Were dan Verb Ing


7. Past Perfect Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya telah selesai terjadi di masa lampau dan berkaitan dengan kejadian masa lampau lain.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + had + Verb 3 + O
= He had played football (Dia sudah bermain sepakbola (dulu))
Nominal = S + had + been + adjective/ adverb
= He had been full (Dia sudah kenyang (dulu))
Negative = S + had + not + Verb 3 + O
= He had not played football (Dia sudah tidak bermain sepakbola (dulu))
Negative = S + had + not + been + adjective/ adverb
= He had not been full (Dia belum kenyang (dulu))
Interrogative = had + S + Verb 3 + O
= Had he played football? (Apakah dia sudah bermain sepakbola (dulu)?)
Interrogative = Had + S+ been + adjective/ adverb
= Had he been full (Apakah dia sudah kenyang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = HAD dan Verb 3

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya di masa lampu yang sudah dan masih berlangsung.
Rumus :

Verbal = S + had + been + verb ing
= He had been playing football, when she came (Dia sudah dan sedang bermain sepakbola, ketika dia datang (dulu))
Nominal = S + had + been + being + adjective/ adverb
= He had been being full (Dia sudah dan masih kenyang (dulu))
Negative = S + had + not + been + Verb ing + O
= He had not been playing football (Dia belum dan tidak sedang bermain sepakbola (dulu))
Negative = S + had + not + been + being + adjective/ adverb
= He had not been being full (Dia belum dan tidak sedang kenyang (dulu))
Interrogative = had + S + been + Verb ing + O
= Had he been playing football? (Apakah dia sudah dan sedang bermain sepakbola (dulu)?)
Interrogative = Had + S+ been + being + adjective/ adverb
= Had he been being full (Apakah dia sudah dan sedang kenyang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = HAD BEEN dan Verb Ing

9. Simple Future Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya baru akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + will/shall + verb 1
= He will play football tomorrow (Dia akan bermain bola besok)
Nominal = S + will/shall + be + Adj/ Adv
= He will be happy tomorrow (Dia akan senang besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + not + verb 1
= He will not play football tomorrow (Dia tidak akan bermain bola besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + not be + Adj/ Adv
= He will not be happy tomorrow (Dia tidak akan senang besok)
Interrogative = will/shall + S + verb 1
= Will he play football tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan bermain bola besok?)
Interrogative = Will/shall + S + be + Adj/ Adv
= Will he be happy tomorrow? (Dia akan senang besok?)
CIRI UTAMA = WILL/ SHALL

10. Future Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya sedang berlansung di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + will/shall + be + Verb ing
= He will be playing football, when you come tomorrow (Dia akan sedang bermain bola, ketika kamu datang besok)
Nominal = S + will/shall + be + being + Adj/ Adv
= He will be being happy tomorrow (Dia akan sedang senang besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + be not + Verb ing
= He will be not playing football tomorrow (Dia tidak akan sedang bermain bola besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + be not being + Adj/ Adv
= He will be not being happy tomorrow (Dia tidak akan senang besok)
Interrogative = will/shall + S + be + Verb ing
= Will he be playing football tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sedang bermain bola besok?)
Interrogative = Will/shall + S + be + being + Adj/ Adv
= Will he be being happy tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sedang senang besok?)
CIRI UTAMA = WILL/ SHALL + BE + VERB ING

11. Future Perfect Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang kejadiannya sudah selesai terjadi di masa datang dan sudah dimulai dari masa sebelumnya.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + will/shall + have + verb 3
= He will have played football, when you come tomorrow (Dia akan sudah bermain bola, ketika kamu datang besok)
Nominal = S + will/shall + have been + Adj/ Adv
= He will have been full tomorrow (Dia akan sudah kenyang besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + have not + Verb 3
= He will have not played football tomorrow (Dia belum akan (tidak sudah) bermain bola besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + have not been + Adj/ Adv
= He will have not been full tomorrow (Dia akan belum kenyang besok)
Interrogative = will/shall + S + have + Verb 3
= Will he have played football tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sudah bermain bola besok?)
Interrogative = Will/shall + S + have been + Adj/ Adv
= Will he have been full tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sudah kenyang besok?)
CIRI UTAMA = WILL/ SHALL + HAVE + VERB 3

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang menunjukan kejadian di masa yang akan datang yang sudah berawal dari masa lampau dan akan masih akan berlangsung hingga masa datang.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + will/shall + have been + Verb ing
= He will have been working here, when you come tomorrow (Dia akan sudah dan sedang bekerja, ketika kamu datang besok)
Nominal = S + will/shall + have been being + Adj/ Adv
= He will have been being full tomorrow (Dia akan sudah dan masih kenyang besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + have not been + Verb ing
= He will have not been playing football tomorrow (Dia belum akan dan tidak sedang  bermain bola besok)
Negative = S + will/shall + have not been being + Adj/ Adv
= He will have not been being full tomorrow (Dia akan belum dan tidak sedang kenyang besok)
Interrogative = Will/shall + S + have been + Verb ing
= Will he have been playing football tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sudah dan sedang bermain bola besok?)
Interrogative = Will/shall + S + have been being + Adj/ Adv
= Will he have been being full tomorrow? (Apakah dia akan sudah dan sedang kenyang besok?)
CIRI UTAMA = WILL/ SHALL + HAVE BEEN + VERB ING

13. Simple Past Future Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang menunjukan perandaian di kejadian masa lampau.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + would /should + Verb 1
= He would play football, if you came (Dia akan bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Nominal = S + would /should + be + Adj/ Adv
= He would be happy, if you came (Dia akan senang, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Negative = S + would /should + not + Verb 1
= He would not play football, if you came (Dia tidak akan bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Negative = S + would /should + not be + Adj/ Adv
= He would not be happy, if you came (Dia tidak akan senang, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Interrogative = Would /should + S + Verb 1
= Would he play football, if you came (Apakah dia akan bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu)?)
Interrogative = Would /should + S + be + Adj/ Adv
= Would he be happy, if you came? (Apakah dia akan senang, jika kamu datang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = WOULD/ SHOULD + V 1

14. Past Future Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang menunjukan perandaian suatu kejadian yang masih berlangsung di masa lampau.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + would /should + be + Verb ing
= He would be playing football, if you came (Dia akan sedang bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Nominal = S + would /should + be + being + Adj/ Adv
= He would be being happy, if you came (Dia akan sedang senang, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Negative = S + would /should + not be + Verb ing
= He would not be playing football, if you came (Dia tidak akan sedang bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Negative = S + would /should + not be being + Adj/ Adv
= He would not be being happy, if you came (Dia tidak akan sedang senang, jika kamu datang (dulu))
Interrogative = Would /should + S + be + Verb ing
= Would he be playing football, if you came (Apakah dia akan sedang bermain bola, jika kamu datang (dulu)?)
Interrogative = Would /should + S + be + being + Adj/ Adv
= Would he be being happy, if you came? (Apakah dia akan sedang senang, jika kamu datang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = WOULD/ SHOULD + BE + VERB ING

15. Past Future Perfect Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang menunjukan perandaian kejadian yang berlangsung di masa lampau dan sudah selesai dikerjakan di masa berikutnya atau yang akan datang.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + should /would + have + Verb 3
= He would have played football (Dia akan sudah bermain bola (dulu))     
Nominal = S + should /would + have + been + Adj/ Adv
= He would have been full (Dia akan sudah kenyang (dulu))
Negative = S + should /would + have not + Verb 3
= He would have not played football (Dia akan tidak sudah bermain bola (dulu))
Negative = S + should /would + have not been + Adj/ Adv
= He would have not been full (Dia akan tidak sudah kenyang (dulu))
Interrogative = Should /would + S + have + Verb 3
= Would he have played football (Apakah dia akan sudah bermain bola (dulu)?)        
Interrogative = Should /would + S + have + been + Adj/ Adv
= Would he have been full (Apakah dia akan sudah kenyang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = WOULD/ SHOULD + HAVE + VERB 3

16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
Fungsi : digunakan untuk kalimat yang menunjukan perandaian kejadian yang berlangsung di masa lampau yang sudah dan masih akan berlangsung hingga ke masa lalu berikutnya.

Rumus :
Verbal = S + would/should + have been + Verb ing
= He would have been playing football (Dia akan sudah dan sedang bermain bola (dulu))
Nominal = S + would/should + have been being + Adj/ Adv
= He would have been being full (Dia akan sudah dan sedang kenyang (dulu))
Negative = S + would/should + have been not + Verb ing
= He would have been not playing football (Dia tidak akan sudah dan sedang bermain bola (dulu))
Negative = S + would/should + have not been being + Adj/ Adv
= He would have not been being full (Dia tidak akan sudah dan sedang kenyang (dulu))
Interrogative = Would/should + S + have been + Verb ing
= Would he have been playing football? (Apakah dia akan sudah dan sedang bermain bola (dulu)?)
Interrogative = Would/should + S + have been being + Adj/ Adv
= Would he have been being full? (Apakah dia akan sudah dan sedang kenyang (dulu)?)
CIRI UTAMA = WOULD/ SHOULD + HAVE BEEN + VERB ING

Catatan:
Verbal = Kalimat yang mengandung kata kerja
Nominal = Kalimat yang tidak mengandung kata kerja / hanya terdapat adjective/ adverb (kata sifat/ kata bantu kerja)
Negative = Kalimat yang mengandung kata ingkar (tidak)
Interrogative = Kalimat tanya
To be bentuk 1 = is/ am/ are; bentuk 2 = was/ were; bentuk 3 = been.


TRIK SEDERHANA = Untuk subjek They, we, I, you gunakan to be yang tidak mengandung unsur ‘S’. yakni am/ are (bentuk 1); were (bentuk 2); serta berlaku pula pada pilihan DO. Sedangkan subjek lain (He, She, It) Gunakan yang mengandung unsur ‘S’, yakni Is/ Was/ Does/ (Shall). Kecuali pada ‘WILL’ dapat digunakan untuk subjek He She It. 


Diberdayakan oleh Blogger.